Sanchez-Fidalgo S, et al. Influence of extra virgin olive oil diet enriched with hydroxytyrosol in a chronic DSS colitis model. Eur J Nutr. 2012 Jun;51(4):497-506. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21874330/
Gonzalez-Santiago M, et al. One-month administration of hydroxytyrosol, a phenolic antioxidant present in olive oil, to hyperlipemic rabbits improves blood lipid profile, antioxidant status and reduces atherosclerosis development. Atherosclerosis. 2006 Sep;188(1):35-42. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16300770/
Zhu L, et al. Hydroxytyrosol protects against oxidative damage by simultaneous activation of mitochondrial biogenesis and phase II detoxifying enzyme systems in retinal pigment epithelial cells. J Nutr Biochem. 2010 Nov;21(11):1089-98. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20149621/
Schaffer S, et al. Cytoprotective effects of olive mill wastewater extract and its main constituent hydroxytyrosol in PC12 cells. Pharmacol Res. 2010 Oct;62(4):322-7. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20600919/
Dr. Francesco Visioli has been the scientist with the highest number of published studies about olive polyphenols, more than 70, half of which have been about olive oil polyphenols. His team was the one which found out the biological and pharmacological properties of olive oil polyphenols.Dr. Visioli is Doctor in Cell and Molecular Biotechnology applied to Medicine by the University of Milan. He has been Professor of Physiopathology at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris and of Pharmacological Sciences at University of Milan.Below are some of the publications in which Dr. Visioli collaborates and in which the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory capacity of olive polyphenols is shown:
Waste waters from olive oil production are rich in natural antioxidants. Experientia 51: 32– 34. (1995)
Low density lipoprotein oxidation is inhibited in vitro by olive oil constituents, Atherosclerosis 117 25–32 (1995)
Hydroxytyrosol prevented the iNOS and COX-2 increase on incubated cells with lipopolisacarids (LPS) (“Hydroxytyrosol, a phenolic compound from virgin olive oil, prevents macrophage activation”. Maiuri MC et al. 2005)).
An hydroxytyrosol enriched extract diminished the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β y TNF-α; (“Effects of hydroxytyrosol-20 on carrageenan-induced acute inflammation and hyperalgesia in rats”. Gong D. et al. 2009).
Hydroxytyrosol inhibited with a dose dependent the production of leukotriens B4 (LTB4); (“Inhibition of leukocyte leukotriene B4 production by an olive oil derived phenol identified by mass-spectrometry”. Petroni et al. 1997).
Hydroxytyrosol diminished the cytokines secretion (IL- 1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α), and kemokines (CXCL10/IP-10, CCL2/MCP-1); (“Hydroxytyrosol is the major anti- inflammatory compound in aqueous olive extracts and impairs cytokine and chemokine production in macrophages”. Richard N. et al. 2011)
Hydroxytyrosol reduced dramatically the COX-2 expression; (“Effect of olive oil phenols on the production of inflammatory mediators in freshly isolated human monocytes”; Rosignolia et al. (2013).
Hydroxytyrosol suppressed significantly the TNF-α, iNOS, y COX-2 transcription in a doe dependent way; (“Hydroxytyrosol inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokines, iNOS, and COX-2 expression in human monocytic cells”. Zhang X. et al. 2009).